Historia Ivo Andrić literatura multiculturalidad Opinion Yugoslavia

'A bridge over the Drina', by Ivo Andrić

Ivo Andrić, A bridge over the Drina. Barcelona: RBA, 2016.

Translation by Luisa Fernanda Garrido and Tihomir Pištelek.

Fictionalized historical past

To paraphrase Ivo Andrić, the bridge over the Drina, of “unique beauty”, was the only one that for a very long time joined completely and safely to Bosnia and Serbia in the center and higher a part of stated river. Its historical relevance has lots to do, subsequently, with its geostrategic state of affairs: it was a zone of passage in the direction of the Ottoman Empire and even Istanbul. The bridge is situated in the metropolis -or, as it’s referred to as in the e-book, kasaba- Višegrad, inhabitants that is at present in the Republika Srpska, -entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina-.

Clarify the historical past of this bridge is to elucidate, in turn, that of the Višegrad's individuals. In the phrases of Andrić at the end of the first chapter of the ebook: «the history of the development and the future of the bridge is at the similar time the story of the life of the kasaba and its inhabitants, from era to era, simply as by means of all the stories about the city the line of the stone bridge is drawn with eleven eyes, with the kapija in the middle like a crown ».

The bridge over the Drina was built between 1571 and 1577 by order of the Grand Vizier Mehmed Paša Sokolović. The Ottoman army and politician was of Bosnian origin and as a toddler was forcibly recruited by the Ottoman Empire with the goal of turning him into a soldier – this apply, suffered yearly by the Bosnians, was referred to as devşirme. Literature – or not – the information, Andrić tells that the Grand Vizier decided to construct it as a way to put an finish to an oppression in his chest because of the trauma that triggered him to cross the river, just in Višegrad, on his approach to Istanbul after his pressured imprisonment.

Cover of one among the variations of the e-book in Spanish.

Broadly speaking, this can be a novel that aims, with the excuse of the history of the bridge, portray an entire period and customs that the writer considers already misplaced. Revealed in March 1945, the work isn’t solely antimilitarist Y anti-imperialist, but a successful research of Human nature and his psychology. Their analyzes go beyond the anecdote and they are often simultaneously extrapolated. Moreover, it even demystifies some trendy misperceptions; the most hanging, the lack of multicultural realities till the end of the 20th century.

Almost two centuries ago Europe lived underneath the logic of the Nation-States; now we will see a growth in the ultranationalist discourses, who defend returning to a primal nation. What a surprise the most essentialists would take in the event that they read the work of the Yugoslav writer: Andrić collects the mosaic of cultures and religions that shaped that society, at the similar time that exhibits us how migration for financial and labor causes has existed since time immemorial. For instance, the writer explains that the bridge builders converse “in that strange mixed language that over the years had been created between these people from different corners of the world.”

Continuing with this portrait of a extra sociocultural reduce, Andrić also emphasizes the cultural impositions suffered in Višegrad by the Empires, typically exemplified via the use of languages. On multiple event some of his characters do not understand the authorities orders – whether or not in Turkish or German – and a few go as far as to endure helplessness throughout an interrogation – a proven fact that finally ends up costing them their lives.

“The history of the construction and the destination of the bridge is at the same time the history of the life of the Kasaba and its inhabitants,” says Andrić. Doing so, the writer additionally portrays an entire period and customs that he considers already misplaced.

Another peculiarity that the Yugoslavian writer manages to capture is the improve in velocity with which the lifetime elapses. Andrić exemplifies it with arrival of the practiceThe route to Sarajevo, which till then concerned a two-day carriage experience, may be completed in simply four hours by practice. As we’ve got observed, contact with different worlds already existed, but with social and economic progress, it is occurring increasingly more shortly and deeply.

And, like every part in life, this has its constructive and unfavorable elements. While increasingly students can afford to go to the universities of Prague, Vienna or Zagreb, Andrić will explain, the citizens of Višegrad lose financial independence. Obliged to enter absolutely into an incipient however strict capitalism, the residents of the Kasaba are more uncovered to the vagaries of the financial system and, what for hundreds of years had allowed to reside safely – a family store through which there was no sin of speculation- , at the beginning of the 20th century it begins to be no assure of anything.

Because that is the place Andrić's emphasis lies: the previous world, the one that’s lost, is that of management, that of recognized, of recognizable norms and of excessive respect to the totally different religions and their religious leaders. With the arrival of «a brand new melody» exported by the Austrians, Višegrad is modernized and it progresses: it undergoes a process of transforming, regulation and compelled rationalization of the public area and of the social conduct and mercantile. Method and politics have desacralized every little thing that was thought-about necessary in the previous order.

The Yugoslavian writer portrays this sluggish but implacable process, which can convey prosperity and safety but which, on the different hand, will change the individuals and the physiognomy of the kasaba perpetually. A process that may provoke the procedures of the end of a world, completed off with the outbreak of World Conflict I. With the demise of this world, the bridge will even stop to be what it had all the time been since its development: the border between East and West.

The author Ivo Andrić. [Foto de Stevan Kragujević – CC BY-SA 3.0 rs].

Wonderful structure

One among the achievements of this guide -which was in all probability the one that made the writer of the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature- is the clear and effective construction with which he clothes. It is composed of twenty-four chapters of rich and variable themes: while in some we’re informed the huge ones historic information and geopolitical – for instance, how social and fragmentary realities turn out to be even more complicated as a result of the emergence of borders and Nation-States – in others they are counted personal tales.

However beware, it is exactly these extra private tales that better portray the occasions; whether or not or not they have political and / or social relevance, the protagonists of those fairly conventional tales clarify how they have been, what they thought and how the inhabitants behaved. The nights in the kapija of the bridge or in the taverns of the kasaba, the love tales that derive in widespread track or the misfortune of those who have ended up addicted to the recreation are the ones that greatest make us know Višegrad.

And this – which is not straightforward although it appears – is another of Andrić's achievements: getting the characters to work mosaic mode, as elements of a complete. In other words, to ensure that the protagonists are usually not exactly topics of the story, but somewhat objects from which to comprehend it. And all this, without leaping from one character to a different is traumatic or disheartening to the reader. We repeat, an achievement.

Whether it was completed on objective or not, explaining the development of the bridge following this development helped the Yugoslav author to extol those more nameless individuals, to the individuals of the town and not so much to the personalities, who’re the ones who most frequently go down in History. The fact that Andrić describes sure characters with extra affection and tenderness – and that, generally, they are often of the widespread individuals – makes us suspect that he did play this letter.

The ebook is wearing a transparent and efficient construction, with chapters of thematic disparity and tone the place the important characters seem to be, moderately than topics, objects from which we know the story.

Variety of tones

If the tone that the writer makes use of when presenting a personality is essential for the reader relating to understanding how you can decide it, extra so is the means to retain and hook the reader to the work. And Andrić achieves this last since the first chapter, the place he tries to catch and unfold the reader's enthusiasm via a fantasy exercise -Of idealization- of the historical past of the development of the bridge.

How? Particularly by way of the look of the girls and boys of the kasaba: Who could not persuade us that something implausible can exist! They’re the ones who introduce us to the geography and panorama on which the bridge might be constructed, in addition to all the tales, legends and tales that the bridge has raised.

Afterward -and ranging from the second chapter- Andrić will abandon this tone: he doesn’t need to move for a naif or a histrionic writer. But it is exactly because of this beginning that he may have laid the foundations to go leaping from history to historical past, from tone to tone, to seduce the reader while avoiding the monotony.

It ought to be famous right here that, being a historic reconstructionAndrić might have chosen to fall into encyclopaedism or didacticism or try to keep a false goal position on the details. On the different hand, find the solution to narrate with enough enthusiasm, historical rigor, tenderness and evaluation; all, used at the proper and applicable occasions.

Lastly, it ought to be noted right here that, as in any work that isn’t learn in the unique version, if the reader is able to detect the earlier traits, this can be a benefit of the individual in command of its translation.

The bridge kapija. [Foto de Mazbln – CC BY-SA 3.0].

Transparency, moralizing writing and sociohistorical analysis of the narrator

Another function of the novel is that Andrić is sort of transparent with the reader: try to depart clues so that he, while having fun with reading, can determine what he is making an attempt to convey. For instance, at the end of the second chapter, he’ll say: “The individuals keep in mind and inform what they will perceive and what they will rework into a legend. The remaining move by him with out leaving deep traces, with the mute indifference of the anonymous natural phenomena, he does not touch his fantasy and doesn’t linger in his memory.

In front of the lack of ability to elucidate normal issues, Andrić will inform these tales once they’ve been reworked into legend. It will be sterile to try to discern if the writer has advised the fact: it’s what evokes – and never its accuracy – what should matter to the reader.

Andrić is a moralizing narrator who tries to be clear with the reader. Nevertheless, in his effort to attempt to painting a world that has ceased to exist, he 'forgets' to elucidate what happened in Yugoslavia once the First World Struggle broke out.

We will additionally describe Andrić's narrative in the novel as moralizing, filled with sentences that, for instance, point and criticize situations of cruelty, injustice or extra of energy. Situations typically carried out by the army and the army-regardless of their empire.

This sententious method of writing entails another characteristic: it appears that evidently the Yugoslav writer thinks that Historical past is one thing that does nothing however repeat itself. Andrić won’t say it verbatim however, by means of paragraphs like the following one – of a putting contemporaneity -, will probably be attainable to glimpse that thus it thinks it:

“In the moments of social convulsions and large and imminent modifications, this type of unhealthy or immature individuals are likely to proliferate that carry things in the mistaken method and in the mistaken course. This is precisely one among the indicators of chaotic occasions. “

To finish with the sociohistorical evaluation, we want to emphasize that Andrić presents the younger individuals of his time as people who choose a greater life individualistic, extra animated, exciting and agitated, with longing for day by day sensations. For him, it is as if the contemplative life had disappeared, to provide method to a type of stimulated life -eye: not necessarily stimulating-. Does it sound like something?

Because of every little thing identified, Andrić managed to make his work modern at the second of being written -before explaining a past- and that at this time, virtually seventy-five years later, we proceed to seek out it. And this is, largely, as a result of it manages to humanize its characters, makes them credible: the writer leaves enough tracks of social and psychological nature so that the reader can empathize with them more simply and till you find analogous situations in your everyday life.

A defect

Like every thing in life, the e-book has some flaws. The one which resonates the most is the one that certainly residents of some exyugoslavos nations indicate: Andrić hides not persevering with the historical past, ending it simply at the outbreak of the First World Struggle. And it was that it additionally exploded all the underground tyrrhias between ethnic teams that he has been buried throughout the narrative. Would not it’s fascinating or of historic justice to additionally narrate how and why did this happen? Is it obvious on function as a result of it will have an effect on the idealized vision of the area that the writer intends to evoke?

Be that as it might, what is obvious is that a narrative isn’t completely objective. And as talked about above, following in the wake of what multiple southern reader can remind him of the literature of the Center Europe – we consider the Joseph Roth of La marcha Radetzky and The Crypt of the Capuchins, for example-, Andrić we explains a time, with its beginning, its high points and its finish.

Read it!

Whether or not they are fans or not of historical literature, run to the bookstores, libraries or household shelves. Andrić tried to point out with the novel that all the things that is nicely worked and with a very good base, stays virtually unchanging, indestructible. As determined by the unconscious philosophy of the kasaba, “life is an incomprehensible prodigy because it is spent and wasted constantly, and yet it lasts and lasts firmly as” the bridge over the Drina. ” And he obtained it, settling it on some strong pillars, that the novel appears to us, even to this present day, engaging, stimulating and modern.

This can be a non-profit rationalization.