So, there you are together with your stack of instrument plug-ins. You know how to load presets, and which knobs and switches to fiddle with to get certain results. But do you know what those knobs and switches are literally doing? And if you have imagined a specific sound, or heard one thing you want to recreate, would you have the first concept of how to use a synthesizer to craft that sound?
In case your sound-design periods often involve randomly waggling knobs and flicking switches until you land on something you more-or-less just like the sound of, then stick round – because we’re going to speak in-depth about sound synthesis, wanting at the historical past and technicalities, and giving practical steerage, for all the principal synthesis strategies.
Synthesis: it’s a sophisticated business, however finally offers an enormous quantity of creativity and enjoyable
The basics of fundamentals
In this first part of our research of the varied points of synthesis, we’re looking at subtractive synthesis. To know this precept – or some other type of sound synthesis for that matter – we first have to take a quick detour by means of the science of sound. A sound wave is a collection of strain modifications, or waves of compression and rarefaction in the air or different medium, and our ears hear sound because they’re sensitive to these strain modifications.
The waveforms drawn in our DAWs or on an oscilloscope display are a graphical representation of the sample of compression and rarefaction that includes a sound wave – compression corresponds with the place the line on the graph is above the horizontal centre and rarefaction corresponds with where the line is under the centre.
When wanting intently at such a graphical waveform, it may at occasions appear chaotic and random, but typically, we will see shapes and patterns in there too; once we understand pitch in a sound, what we’re detecting is these repeating patterns within the sound wave.
The pitch of the notice we understand is decided by the speed, or frequency, at which the sample repeats. The quicker the repetition, the upper the perceived pitch – and a doubling of the frequency is perceived as a pitch improve of an octave. This price of repetition is referred to as a sound’s elementary frequency.
Nevertheless, except sine waves, all sound waves include extra info than simply their elementary frequency – additionally they include overtones. Overtones are frequencies that intrude with – or modulate – the elemental frequency, giving rise to complexity within the waveform. Altering patterns of overtones give rise to altering patterns of complexity within the sound. We perceive that complexity as the timbre or tone of a sound.
Waveforms and oscillators
The rationale sine waves don’t fit into this image is because they are pure tones containing no overtones, which makes them pretty ineffective in subtractive-synthesis terms (although they are the idea of a unique form of synthesis). It’s because the whole concept of subtractive synthesis is to start with a posh, timbrally rich waveform and to filter and form that complexity in order to achieve the specified outcomes. In other phrases, to actually subtract timbral complexity from the sound, hence the identify.
The idea goes that with adequate decisions and mixtures of supply waveform and with adequate management over the pitch, timbre and quantity degree of the resulting sound, it is potential to approximate the sound and behavior of any acoustic instrument. The extra circuitry/DSP you convey to the table, the less this approximation is.
At its most elementary, subtractive synthesis requires three core parts. The first of these is the oscillator, which generates the preliminary timbrally rich waveform that’s fed to the rest of the synthesizer. In older analogue synths, this was typically referred to as a voltage-controlled oscillator, or VCO, as a result of the frequency (ie, pitch) of the waveform produced by the oscillator can be determined by the voltage of a management sign fed into the oscillator circuit. Software synths don’t use control voltages and trendy hardware synths not often use it, but you’ll nonetheless typically see synth oscillators referred to as VCOs. Most synths supply two or more unbiased oscillators, allowing the essential waveforms to be combined and combined in quite a lot of methods to create far more complicated results.
Sometimes, individual oscillators could be switched to produce considered one of a variety of waveforms, the most typical being triangle, square, pulse and sawtooth. Every of these has a differing timbre due to the precise overtones the waveform accommodates. Incidentally, in the case of these basic analogue waveforms, the overtones they include are of a special selection referred to as ‘harmonics’, these being overtones whose frequencies are mathematically associated to the elemental frequency. We’ll study more about this in a future instalment of this collection of options, once we take a look at FM and additive synthesis. Most synths additionally supply a noise oscillator, which is beneficial for creating non-pitched sounds, corresponding to percussion and effects.
An understanding of the science of sound is useful when getting your head round subtractive synthesis
Amps and envelopes
A core component of a subtractive synth is the amplifier, also recognized in analogue circuits because the voltage-controlled amplifier or VCA. In simple phrases, this just amplifies the waveform to make it audible, and supplies a quantity control for a sound. Nevertheless, VCAs invariably employ an envelope generator that modifies the output degree of the amplifier over time, from the second a word is triggered to the second it is released.
There are a selection of several types of envelope generator, and these are outlined by the variety of levels they control. For example, the most typical sort of VCA envelope discovered on subtractive synths is an ADSR envelope, which has an assault time (A), decay time (D), maintain degree (S) and release time (R). These levels are simple to understand: attack is the time taken for the sound to go from silent to full volume; decay is the time taken to go from full volume to the sustain degree; the sustain degree is maintained until the key/trigger is released and the release time is the time taken to go from the current degree again to silence.
A visualisation of an ADSR envelope, the most typical sort of VCA envelope
Envelopes might be each easier than this (ADR envelopes crop up from time to time) and extra complicated, resembling with attack and decay levels, a number of decay occasions and sustain levels as well as the power to alter the curve shape of the attack, decay and launch levels.
Modifiers and modulation
The envelope generator controlling the VCA just isn’t, strictly talking, part and parcel of the VCA, though the VCA virtually all the time has an envelope generator hard-wired to it. Slightly, the envelope generator is a separate element, often known as a modifier or modulation supply, and the VCA’s degree is a modulation vacation spot that’s beneath the control of the envelope. Equally, patching envelope turbines into different modulation locations allows it to have an effect on these locations, for example by modifying the timbre (by way of the VCF) or pitch (by way of the VCO) of a sound over time.
Alongside envelope turbines, the other indispensable modifier is the low-frequency oscillator, or LFO. Identical to the common VCO oscillators, LFOs create a repeating waveform and sometimes have a number of waveforms comparable to these provided by a VCO (triangle, sq., saw, and so forth), although with LFOs, a sine waveform can also be widespread and helpful.
The principal distinction is that, as the identify suggests, an LFO oscillates far more slowly than a VCO, sometimes from lower than 0.1Hz (one cycle every 10 seconds) to round 20Hz (20 cycles per second). Some LFOs can go to greater frequencies than this, at which point they start to generate an audible pitched frequency of their own that can grow to be a helpful artistic software in and of itself.
Although we’re now in a world the place absolutely featured delicate synths are commonplace, the basics of synthesis haven’t modified for many years
The most typical use for LFOs is to modify a modulation destination regularly over time, creating, for example, a vibrato effect if routed to a VCO’s pitch, or a tremolo impact if patched to the VCA’s degree. Sometimes, you also can modify one modulation source with another, for instance controlling the intensity or velocity of an LFO by way of an envelope. That is good for vibratos that construct up over time.
Totally different synths deal with this modulation supply/vacation spot idea in several ways. Some disguise it altogether, with sources hard-wired and devoted to particular destinations, whereas others permit just a little bit of flexibility, similar to by allowing the VCA envelope to even be applied to the VCF, while nonetheless hiding a lot of the routing involved.
But probably the most flexible synths provide the means to route any modulation source to any modulation vacation spot, sometimes by way of a matrix of switches or knobs. Where knobs are used, you can regulate the quantity of the source modulation that might be utilized to the destination, in addition to its polarity (for instance, so that an envelope reduces the level of the vacation spot slightly than will increase it).
Different widespread modulation sources embrace key velocity, modulation wheel, and keyboard monitoring. This final modifications its output according to the incoming set off key/word, making it ideally suited for things like making a sound brighter (or darker) the upper up the important thing range it is performed. How you use all of these totally different modulation sources is usually the distinction between a mean sound and an awesome one, so it’s value searching out synths that permit full access to their modulation routing.
Other subtractive elements
Whereas what we’ve discussed to date covers 99 per cent of the instruments you’ll need to get to grips with so as to master subtractive synthesis, there are a number of different elements that crop up on more superior synths.
Chief amongst these is the Ring Modulator, and what this does is permit one oscillator’s waveform to be modulated by one other, resulting in hard-edged, typically metallic-sounding, tones. Detuning the second oscillator, or placing its pitch underneath the control of an LFO or envelope, creates probably the most vivid outcomes – the digital scream originally of the unique Doctor Who theme tune is a basic example of this.
Vocoding – true vocoding, that’s, not digital pitch manipulation – is another trick that some subtractive synths can pull off. Comparable to ring modulation, vocoding uses the signal from an external enter to modulate an oscillator’s waveform, leading to a wierd mixture of natural and synthetic sound. Though most sonically obvious when used on vocals, creating a robotic type of sound, vocoders are an superior sound-morphing software when applied to many other sources too (go on, put some lead guitar by way of one… you know you need to!).
Subtractive synthesis is rooted deeply in analogue circuitry and didn’t fare nicely in the early days of the digital audio revolution, the place it was pushed apart by digital synths that have been extra secure and that would extra accurately emulate the sound of real-world instruments. However the wealthy, heat sound of true subtractive synths have been their saving grace, exuding so much more character, depth and subtlety than the sample-based upstarts.
Realising that sampled waveforms and flaccid digital filters might never deliver this unique character, and recognising the growing demand for devices whose sound was crafted by the consumer not the producer, synthesis R&D began to give attention to digital modelling, analysing the characteristics and responses of analogue circuitry and recreating those traits computationally.
While such digital fashions don’t quite match a real analogue synth’s richness and depth of tone, the know-how has achieved away with the practicalities of measurement, value and reliability that restricted what could possibly be carried out with purely analogue circuitry. This has given subtractive synthesis an entire new lease of life, with new and astonishing examples of the form hitting the market virtually weekly.
Mastering subtractive synthesis, then, is among the most worthwhile issues a music creator can do. Not only do its concepts pervade each different type of synthesis, it’s also by far and away the easiest way to create the type of unique and galvanizing sounds that may rework your music from being just okay, to being a sonically crafted piece filled with interest and element.
Learn up on a quick history of synthesis here.